The International Conference on Biodiversity and IPM: Working together for a sustainable future was hosted by Sam Ratulangi University, in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. This is one of first Conference to integrate biodiversity and IPM issues. Among the organizers and sponsors were the IPM Innovation Lab based in Virginia Tech, the USAID, Clemson University and the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS). North Sulawesi is uniquely situated between two continents and two oceans, the Indian and Pacific and the closely related to the Wallace line (link to ) named after the English naturalist, Alfred Russell Wallace, the father of biogeography. With much of the marine biodiversity well maintained, Manado the capital, still a favorite destination of divers and naturalists.
Biodiversity is commonly associated with wildlife species conservation and in agriculture it is commonly associated with genetic diversity of germplasm. Yet in agriculturally managed ecosystems, the floral and faunal biodiversity is large and complex but yet often ignore. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) convened by the United Nations in 2000 provides a useful framework to structure into ecosystems linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services. The ecosystem services that are most pertinent to sustainable agriculture may be grouped into provisioning, regulating, supporting and benefits from cultural and aesthetics services.
There are hundreds of arthropod species in rice ecosystems and only a few are pests of economic importance. Most of the arthropod species are service providers to regulatory services, like pest /disease regulation, pest invasion resistance, pollination and soil formation through ecological functions such as predation, parasitization, decomposition and pollination (Heong, 2009).
The Conference was attended by more than 200 participants presenting 48 papers on IPM and biodiversity being used in pest management in estates, rice and horticultural crops. The governor of North Sulawesi, Dr Sinyo Harry Sarundajang opened the Conference followed by 3 keynote addresses: Dr Jan van Tol from the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in the Netherlands spoke on “The biological exploration of northern Sulawesi by Alfred Russell Wallace (1823 – 1913) and the other 19th Century pioneers”, Dr K.L. Heong of IRRI spoke of the “Consequences of ecosystem breakdown induced by insecticide misuse in rice” and Dr Carlo Fadda of Bioversity International in Nairobi, Kenya presented “A risk minimizing argument for traditional crop varietal diversity use to reduce pest and disease damage in agricultural ecosystems”
In 2000 K. Kiritani published a paper proposing a new concept ‘Integrated biodiversity management (IBM)’, that will incorporate IPM and conservation objectives. This Conference thus marks the beginning of the IBM concept that can lead to improved management of pest, diseases and ecosystem services.
Heong, KL 2009. Are planthopper problems due to breakdown in ecosystem services? Pp 221 – 232. In Heong, K.L. and Hardy, B. (eds.) Planthoppers – New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines (Click here for pdf) .
Kiritani, K. 2000. Integrated biodiversity management in paddy fields: shift of paradigm from IPM toward IBM. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5: 175–183. (Click here for pdf)